As British icon Jaguar gears up to be fully electric by 2025, what other electric cars can claim to be made in the UK? Here's our look at British-made electric cars - celebrating the distinctly British icons that have entered the electric age, and uncovering the EVs that can really claim to be 'Made in Britain'.
Silent Shadow: An electric Roller
By the end of the year, Rolls Royce will unveil an all-electric Roller. While it is not yet fully clear what form the Silent Shadow will take, it’s expected to draw heavily on BMW’s iX – a large SUV also coming on the market in the UK this year.
Rolls-Royce actually dabbled in all-electric models back in 2011 with its Phantom VII body, but it never made it to production. That car was called the Rolls-Royce 102EX, it was powered by a pair of electric motors and it raced to 62 mph in 8 seconds. To achieve that it had the largest battery pack ever fitted into a passenger car - 71 kWh (for reference 64kWh is pretty common size today). It was ahead of its time with relatively fast charging too, and could replenish the battery fully in around 8 hours.
Whilst Rolls-Royce is busy turning the first truly silent Silent Shadow into reality, there's already a British company building and selling electric Rolls-Royces, rebuilt from the ground up in Silverstone.
Lunaz is a British automotive engineering company that has designed and developed an electric powertrain to breathe new life into classic cars. It has brought a number of celebrated classics back to life, including a 1961 eight-seat Rolls-Royce Phantom V, Rolls Royce Cloud and a 1953 Jaguar XK120. In the ultimate example of upcycling, Lunaz source cars that are no longer functional and create beautiful, clean and usable electric classic cars. David Beckham has recently backed them, so expect to hear more as Lunaz goes global.
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Newtown, Wales is the home to a similar upcycler, Electric Classic Cars, which converts classic cars to 100% electric and sells kits so you can convert your own classic car. It has worked on vehicles including the Range Rover Classic, Ferrari 308 and BMW CSi.
She's electric: the new classic Mini
Far away from the opulent but thirsty Roller, the iconic Mini came about as a smaller, fuel-efficient response to the oil price hikes of the Suez Crisis. The Mini remains timeless and classless - equally at home outside a suburban family house as the London pad of the pop stars of the day.
The Mini Electric is built at the same Oxford factory as the original Mini that revolutionised small car motoring and became a symbol of the swinging sixties. The Oxford plant employs 4,500 people, building 223,000 new cars a year, of which 80 per cent are exported. As soon as the Mini Electric leaves these shores it goes by the rather inconspicuous name ‘Mini Cooper SE’.
The electric makes various references to its UK roots - from the tail-light union jack to the, slightly more subtle, UK three-pin plug design on its hubcaps.
The Mini Electric is powered by a 184 horsepower (135kW) motor, which draws its charge from a 32.6kWh high-voltage lithium ion battery. Despite the heavy batteries, it weighs only 145kg more than a petrol version.
On a fast 'rapid' charger (it goes up to 50kW on a rapid) the electric Mini can achieve 80 per cent of its charge in just 35 minutes. That translates into two-and-a-half hours on a normal home 'wallbox' electric charger. Plug in to a domestic socket for a slower full charge while you sleep (ready in around 12 hours).
Fitting it's thrifty roots, the Mini Electric came out £600 cheaper than the equivalent Mini Cooper S with an automatic gearbox. That doesn’t happen often with an EV, as you normally expect to make savings after you start driving. The Mini's official range (WLTP) is 145 miles. In the real world, you'll get fewer miles between charges, especially during winter months as cold temperatures reduce EV range.
Turn over a Nissan Leaf
It may not be the first thought for a list of British electric institutions, but the Leaf is an EV institution, and it is British built. The Nissan Leaf is built in Sunderland with some imported battery cells. It has been the best-selling electric car in Europe for years.
Batteries for the largest 62kWh version of the Leaf are currently produced in the US. But Nissan plans to bring these onshore too, to produce them as they do the smaller 40kWh units at Sunderland by Chinese firm Envision Group.
Nissan is keen to avoid incurring tariffs on the 70% of Leaf models that are exported out of the UK under the terms of the new EU trade deal. The deal states that at least 55% of a vehicle's material value must come from the UK or EU to avoid penalties.
The first Nissan Leaf, the Mk1, was a true electric car pioneer. The 2020 model built on this with an improved range, a better price and new tech designed to help get the most from its electric drive system.
Nissan always insist on capitals for its flagship EV - LEAF stands for Leading, Environmentally Friendly, Affordable, Family Car. Which just about sums it up. Gill Nowell, EV advocate and founding member of the EV Association of England is one of many EV drivers who went straight for a Leaf when she started driving electric.
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Vauxhall's electric Astra
The Astra is an affordable British hero. This popular family car has been around for over 40 years, and has seen the arrival of the equally iconic Ford Escort and VW Golf.
Vauxhall have given us a glimpse of the electric version of the model, and the chances are that this one too will be built on the production line in Ellesmere Port, Cheshire. Detailed information on Vauxhall’s British-designed Astra will follow in the coming months.
Jaguar speeding to EV status
Jaguar is set to become an electric-only luxury brand from 2025. By the end of 2029, every Jaguar and Land Rover model will be offered with an electric-only version. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) is also committed to become a net-zero carbon business by 2039.
Jaguar will continue its push upmarket, heading towards Bentley’s territory, and staying clear of the SUV segment. Expect some sporty cars. The I-Pace, it's current electric SUV bestseller, continues to be built on its unique platform in Austria and will have a “normal lifespan”.
JLR is owned by the Indian Tata Motors group, but produces electric cars at two sites in the UK. Production will continue at all three of its British plants, but because it has dropped plans to build an electric version of its XJ saloon, the Castle Bromwich plant will eventually stop making cars. Jaguar bosses say they hope to refurbish the plant, bringing in Jaguar-owned businesses scattered across the Midlands.
Jaguar Land Rover announced investment into a battery site at Hams Hall last year to produce hybrid and pure-electric systems for its cars. Solihull will be used to build Land Rovers on the MLA platform and Jaguar models on the new BEV platform.
Land Rover, not off the road yet
Land Rover will launch six EV variants within the next five years, one of them the first all-electric Land Rover, due in 2024. Land Rover is set to retain its off-road ethos. A full electric Range Rover, nicknamed the ‘Road Rover’, is also due in 2024.
Bentley has ground to cover
Crewe-based Bentley will please its clientele “desperate for a luxury electric product”, confirming that by 2030 the marque’s entire lineup will be electric. It’ll have to be a quick turnaround though, with the car maker not even expecting its first electric effort before 2025. Bentley can look to sister-brands Audi and VW for electric drivetrain tech - but when it arrives expect an electric Bentley with a distinct British character.
Lotus goes hyper-electric
The extraordinary Lotus Evija (pronounced “eh-vai-ya”) definitely lives up to the name, meaning "the first in existence”. It is the firm’s first pure-electric production car and its most extreme car ever. The cost is an eye-watering £1.7 million. For that price tag you’ll get a car built by hand and tested around the famous test track at the factory in Hethel, Norfolk.
Lotus says its 1,973bhp and 1,254 lb ft of torque are good for a 0-62mph time of under three seconds and a top speed of 200mph. The mid-mounted battery pack, developed by the Williams Formula 1 team officially does 250 miles on a full charge. Lotus owners will be quick at the pump too - the Evija is capable of charging speeds of up to 800kW – more than twice the power of even the newest generation of ultra-fast (350kW) public chargers currently being rolled out in the UK. In theory, the Evija could recharge from flat in under ten minutes.
An electric sports car bearing a more attainable price tag will be revealed towards the end of 2022.
Delivery is going zero-emissions
Just down the road from Mini, the English electric van manufacturer and vehicle developer Arrival has moved into a new plant in Bicester built on what is called a ‘skateboard’ platform.
Arrival was founded in 2015 and has production facilities and research and development centres in the USA, Germany, Tel Aviv, Russia and Great Britain. This new factory in Oxfordshire will deliver the electric delivery vans from UPS’ bulk order.
The US logistics company had recently ordered 10,000 electric vans from Arrival, with an option for a further 10,000 electric transporters. The deal is said to be worth more than $440 million.
Arrival can’t fulfill the order from the UK, but plans to open “micro-factories” near Los Angeles and New York to produce vehicles destined for North America. The plan is to assemble all European vans in the UK.
Hyundai-Kia are investors with an eye on its ride-hailing or shuttle vehicles.
British-built battery is backbone
There’s no doubt that the collective fate of British-built electric cars lies in the hands of battery makers. In five years' time, the EU trade deal will slap tariffs on any car less than 60% 'British'. This makes British-built batteries even more important.
Step in BritishVolt. Their planned 2.7-million-square-feet plant in the North-East of England will open in 2023, with an annual battery production capacity of up to 35GWh, putting it just below Tesla's gigafactory in Nevada, US. It will be one of the largest industrial investments in British history.
The move is intended to make Britishvolt a global leader in producing high-performance lithium ion batteries, with the firm claiming it will “become one of the largest industrial investments in British history”. The total battery output will be 10GWh – that's enough for 130,000 EVs – and it plans to hit 30GWh by 2027, eventually creating up to 4,000 jobs.
Coventry’s Hyperbat is another battery producer to watch. Hyperbat is a joint venture by Williams, the engineering arm of the Formula One racing team, and Unipart. They’ve invested in bringing their electric technology from research phase to scalable production.
Rumours persist that Tesla could be considering its own battery factory in the UK. Elon Musk recently flew in to the UK for two days, keeping the British Tesla gigafactory hopes alive.
The UK currently exports all its end-of-life batteries. As gigafactories start producing, the UK needs to establish commercial-scale recycling for automotive lithium ion batteries, recycling as much as 80% of battery materials by 2035. Read more about the impact of EVs in our article: How green is your electric car?